Good Hygienic Practices: A Comprehensive Guide to Ensuring Food Safety

To achieve the goal of food safety and suitable food for human consumption, several principles of food hygiene must be adhered to.

Hygienic Food eating
Picture: Pixabay
Former Dy Commissioner, FDCA Gujarat |
Director, Parishil Laboratories Pvt Ltd. Ahmedabad |
Dipika Chauhan

Last Updated on January 26, 2024 by The Health Master

Food Safety

Food Safety: Hygiene, often associated with cleanliness and sanitation, plays a pivotal role in preserving health and promoting healthy living.

In this article, we delve into the concept of hygiene, exploring its various facets and focusing on the significance of Good Hygienic Practices (GHP) in ensuring the safety and suitability of food for human consumption.

Concept of Hygiene

  • The Origin: Hygiene finds its roots in Hygeia, the Greek Goddess of health, cleanliness, and sanitation.
  • Broad Application: Encompasses practices related to medicine, personnel, and professional conduct in various aspects of daily life.

Body Hygiene

Taking care of one’s bodily health is paramount, and body hygiene involves practices that contribute to overall cleanliness and well-being.

Culinary Hygiene

Culinary hygiene is crucial in preventing food contamination, food poisoning, and the transmission of diseases. Let’s explore the specific practices involved.

Culinary Practices

  • Cleaning and Sterilization: Importance of designated cutting boards for raw meats and vegetables.
  • Proper Food Storage: Preventing contamination by vermin.
  • Refrigeration: Ensuring the safety of perishable foods.
  • Labeling: Indicating production or “best before” dates.
  • Proper Disposal: Responsible handling of uneaten food and packaging.

Personal Service Hygiene

In the realm of personal care services, maintaining hygiene is not just a practice; it’s a responsibility.

Personal Hygiene Practices

  • Sterilization of Instruments: Hairdressers, aestheticians, and other service providers.
  • Body Piercing and Tattoo Marking: Ensuring the sterilization of instruments.
  • Hand Hygiene: The importance of clean hands.

Food Hygiene: Essential Principles

To achieve the goal of food safety and suitable food for human consumption, several principles of food hygiene must be adhered to.

  • Food Safety: Ensuring food does not cause harm during preparation or consumption.
  • Food Suitability: Guaranteeing food is acceptable for human consumption.
  • Contaminant and Contamination: Understanding the agents compromising food safety.
  • Cleaning and Disinfection: The critical role of removing contaminants and reducing microorganisms.

Areas Examined under GHP

  1. Primary Production: Addressing hazards introduced at early stages of the food chain.
  2. Establishment: Design and Facilities.
  3. Control of Operation.
  4. Establishment: Maintenance and Sanitation.
  5. Establishment: Personal Hygiene.
  6. Transportation.
  7. Product Information and Consumer Awareness.
  8. Training.

Primary Production

Hygienic practices at the primary production stage aim to reduce the likelihood of introducing hazards that may be challenging to control later in the food chain.


  • Pesticides.
  • Antibiotics.
  • Mycotoxins.
  • Microorganisms in raw or fresh foods.

Establishment: Design

The design of premises, equipment, surfaces, and facilities is crucial in minimizing contamination and ensuring proper maintenance.

Evaluation Criteria

  1. Location.
  2. Equipment.
  3. Facilities: Water, air, lighting, and storage.

Good Housekeeping

  • Pest Control: Initiating at the premises’ boundaries.
  • Water Management: Handling incoming and used water.
  • Infrastructure: Ensuring smooth, accessible surfaces and rounded corners.

Control of Operation

Implementing Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) is essential for controlling food hazards. This involves monitoring time, temperature, humidity, and microbiological specifications.

Control Practices

  • Separation of Contaminated Materials.
  • Assurance of Treatment Effectiveness.
  • Reliability of Cleaning Procedures.
  • Hazard Analysis for Changes.
  • HACCP Plan Updates.

Establishment: Maintenance and Sanitation

Objective: Controlling potential sources of food contamination through regular maintenance and cleaning, pest control, waste management, and monitoring.


  • Keeping establishments and equipment in optimal condition.
  • Facilitating sanitation procedures.
  • Prevention of contamination, debris, chemicals, pests, and dust.

Cleaning Procedures

  1. Removing Gross Debris.
  2. Applying Detergent Solution.
  3. Rinsing with Water.
  4. Disinfection (if necessary).
  5. Dry Cleaning.

Pest Control

  • Prevention of pests entering premises.
  • Protecting food from pests.
  • Immediate eradication of infestations.


Measures must be taken to protect food from contamination sources and damage that may render it unsuitable for consumption.

Product Information and Consumer Awareness

Informing consumers about product information, labeling, and providing education on food hygiene is essential.

Consumer Information

  • Understanding product information importance.
  • Making informed choices.
  • Preventing contamination through correct storage, preparation, and usage.


Promoting awareness and responsibilities through training programs, instructions, supervision, and refresher training is vital.

Key Messages

  • Good Manufacturing Practices: The foundation for producing safe food.
  • Good Hygienic Practices: Address safety and suitability requirements globally.
  • Adaptation: Each food operation should tailor practices to specific conditions.
  • Critical Practices: Identifying practices critical for product safety, included in the HACCP plan.

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