Malaria – Aeitiology & Symptoms

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Malaria Mosquito, Dengue
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Dr. J K Jha
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It is a parasitic  disease mostly occurring in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It can occur in others parts of world. Incidence of malaria has increased. This is due to increased resistance to DDT and Malathoin . This has also increased due to resistance of drugs like Choloroquine and Pyrimethamine.

Causative Factors:

  1. It is caused by the bite of infected female anopheles  mosquito
  2. Blood transfusion ( rarely)

Breeding Places:

Domestic containers like –  vase, flower pots, tins, tyres  & water fountains. Other sites will be drains, buckets, jerry, bathrooms, desert coolers and over headed tanks etc are the breeding places. It can be found in small bushes,shallow waters.

It occurs in Unhygienic conditions, overcrowding conditions, dirty places or rotten utensils , open  pott holes, smaller trees etc. Insecticides like DDT and Malathion have become ineffective in many areas. Mosquitoes have become resistant to above spray.

The malaria eradication program should be implemented in larger areas and state govts. and other agencies should be included in it. 

Plasmodium is the main cause of malaria. The merozoites are infective in its form.

There are four species of plasmodium that cause malaria:

  1. Plasmodium Vivex
  2. Plasmodium Ovate
  3. Plasmodium Malarae
  4. Plasmodium falciparum

No. I is most common in India. No. IV is most dangerous form causing cerebral and Algid Malaria.

Symptoms:

  1. Fever-mild to moderate
  2. Lethargies
  3. Food Apathy
  4. Mailase
  5. Weight loss
  6. Diarrhea
  7. Non- cooperative to environment

There are other symptoms in long standing cases of malaria which can be discussed in another topics.

Author is Retd. Prof. of Pathology, NMCH Patna,
Prof. of Pathology, VIMS Pawapuri, Nalanda Bihar, Prof. of Pathology, PDM University, Bahadurgarh, Prof. of Pathology  SIMS Anwarpur, Hapur, UP,

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