Cerebral Malaria – It is also called Malignant Malaria.
In this type of malaria, there is involvement of brain and it’s part. It is caused by P. falciparum form. This parasite along with parasitized RCB’s block the cerebral vessels. These vessels become congested and swollen . These parasitized RBCs are sticky in nature.
They stick towards the endothelium of the vessel. Endothelium is the inner part of the vessel. Endothelium cells are sticked with parasitized RBC and block the lumen of the vessels, these vessels are occluded . This leads to ischaemia which in turn causes multiple punctate hemorrhage around the occluded vessels of the brain. Looking like ring – hemorrhage,
- Perivascular inflammation and
- Degeneration of neurons occur
It causes high fever, chill and malaise.
No desire to take food, leading to weakness, apathy towards surrounding atmosphere. Fever may go up to 104 degree F and above. The patient becomes unconscious, bedridden. Urine becomes scanty pale. Burning sensation in urine.
One should use mosquito nets, anti -mosquito repellants, antipyretics, cold massage and other +/t by attending physicians. Patience should receive antimalarial treatment, IV, fluid, glucose and plenty of water if the patient can take it orally.
There is weight loss, patient becomes lean and thin. Repeat the test for malaria after treatment and always use the antimalarial measures to protect from another attack by malarial parasites.
Other symptoms will be discussed in another topic.
Author is Retd. Prof. of Pathology, NMCH Patna,
Prof. of Pathology, VIMS Pawapuri, Nalanda Bihar, Prof. of Pathology, PDM University, Bahadurgarh, Prof. of Pathology SIMS Anwarpur, Hapur, UP,
Also read: Pathological Changes in Malaria
Also read: Malaria – Aeitiology & Symptoms