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Animal Blood Bank
There was a news article in media and thehealthmaster.com that a Dog Blood Bank claimed to be first of its kind in North India at Veterinary University at Ludhiana Punjab. This news article started discussion among Drug Regulators in India on following points:
Also read: Special blood bank for dogs established
- 1 Whether any provision is there under Indian Drugs Act for approval of Animal Blood Bank for collection and storage of Animal species specific Blood for transfusion.
- 2 Who can be the competent authority for this purpose.
Relevant definitions are prescribed under Rule 122-EA of Drug Rules. Rule 122EA (c ) Blood means and includes Whole human blood, drawn from a donor and mixed with an anticoagulant. 122EA (g) – donor means a person. Here Blood is whole human blood and donor is a person so do not include Animal Blood under the definition under 122EA.
As far as definition of Drug under section 3( b) is concerned which includes human beings or animals, but Animal Blood used for treatment of disease and disorder in animals by transfusion of species specific Blood found covered under definition of Drug defined under section 3 (b) of Drug Act, but in case of Blood since this is specific for Whole Human Blood and Donor is a person not animal, therefore Animal Blood for animal transfusion use is an unapproved drug having no specific standards.
To regulate this type of Animal Blood Banks this issue must be taken up by Central Drugs Standards Control Organization (CDSCO) and Rules and specifications must be framed and CDSCO and State Regulators can be the Regulatory Competent Authority for this purpose.
11 major blood group systems in cattle
This also remains an unanswered question, if reagents typing of Animal Blood are readily available. The matter becomes more critical as there are 11 major blood group systems in cattle, A, B, C, F, J, L, M, R, S, T and Z. The B group has over 60 different antigens, making it difficult to closely match donor and recipient.
As long as the animals in question have blood (not all do) then they will have species-specific ‘blood groups’. As with humans, these groups are determined by the structure of the blood based on the presence or absence of antibodies along with the make-up of the proteins that sit on the outside of red blood cells.
Blood types in humans and animals
- 4 main blood types in Humans.
- 13 types have been identified for dogs.
- 8 for horses
- 3 for cats.
Therefore clear defined regulations under Drugs Act and Rules and Standards specifications of Animal Blood and reagents Blood Collection Bags etc are required before the purpose of Animal Blood Banking.
Similar discussion was there when question of regulations for collection, processing, Testing , Storage, Banking and Release of Umbilical Cord Blood derived stem cell started in country at Gurugram. But Drug Regulators not only framed the regulations in Schedule F part XII D for Umbilical Cord Blood Banking. Similarly regulations can be made for Animal Blood Banking.
Narender Ahooja, Author is working as State Drugs Controller, Food and Drugs Administration, Haryana
Disclaimer: This is the personal opinion of the writer and anyone may have a different opinion about this product and will not attract any legal implication.
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